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What is the Minimum System on the Microcontroller?

avr minimal circuit

avr minimal circuit

The minimum system circuit of a microcontroller is a series of minimal so the microcontroller can work.

ATmegga AVR chip is equipped with an internal oscillator and thus no need external crystal for CPU clock source in order to save costs.

AVR microcontroller minimum system is very simple, just connect the VCC and AVCC to the DC +5V power supply voltage. Then GND and AGND with the ground. No need an additional crystal and reset pin is not connected to anything. With this circuit, AVR microcontroller has been able to work normally, but you can not reset the microcontroller manually. If you want to activate the reset pin with a button to trigger it, then connect the reset pin on your microcontroller with pull circuit made up of a 10k resistor and capacitor 10uF.

This circuit works for all AVR microcontroller family as ATMega8535, ATMega8, ATmega32, ATmega16 and others.

If you want to use larger crystals from 8MHz to your microcontroller circuit, then you can use an external crystal. You can see a more complete circuit on this page or this one.

AVR ATMega8 Schematic Circuit with Eagle Software

avr-atmega8-minimum-system-schematic-circuit

avr-atmega8-minimum-system-schematic-circuit

ATMega8 Schematic Circuit (Minimum system) is a support circuit for the microcontroller.

Without this support circuit, the microcontroller will not be able to work.

Minimum system for microcontrollers consist of several components. The components are : crystal, capacitors, and the reset circuit (consisting of resistors and capacitors).

And the crystal must be combined by two capacitors. The capacity of this capacitor should be in accordance with the AVR ATMega8 datasheet.

RESET pin on AVR ATMega8 must be pull up with a 4K7 ohm resistor and stabilized with ‘100nF capacitors’.

You have to make the pin as a downloader port. pin of the downloader port must meet a standard sequence. The pin sequence is: MOSI, MISO, SCK, RESET, GROUND.

This AVR ATMega8 schematic is made with the EAGLE software.

AVR ATMega128 Schematic Circuit Adapter DIY

avr-atmega128-schematic-and-board-adapter

avr-atmega128-schematic-and-board-adapter

ATmega128 is one of the AVR microcontroller. Large memory (128KBytes) can be used to make a big project.

For example, if you create a storage system using the MMC and use BASCOM AVR as the programming language, then you have to load a very large libraries into the memory of the microcontroller. And this can not be done if you are using a microcontroller with a small memory such as ATMega16 or ATMega8535. Therefore, you can try using AVR ATmega128 to complete your major project.

However, you would have difficulty in assembling and soldering components on this ATmega128 microcontroller. This is because ATmega128 an SMD component. And you must be able to make a double layer PCB if you want to use a ATmega128 microcontrollers and use part of DIP components (such as IC MAX232 or another).

If you want to combine the two types of these components, then I have tips for you. Make two single PCB layer and combine with pin headers. The first is an adapter PCB for ATmega128 microcontroller and the second is used for the other DIP components. And then combine it with pin header (male and female pin header). You can see PCB adapter for ATmega128 microcontroller in the picture.

DIY – Do It Yourself project

Hopefully this tutorial ( AVR ATMega128 Schematic Circuit Adapter DIY ) can help you in completing the project.

Water Flow Meter Sensor for Arduino

Water flow sensor for arduino tutorial

Water flow sensor for arduino tutorial

Water flow meter sensor is a sensor that can detect the speed of water flow. One of a flow sensor that is often used is the production of seeedstudio. Water flow meter sensor works based on half-effect sensors that are inside. Half-effect sensors work by rotation of the turbine that is rotated by the flow of water. Water flow meter sensor is wrapped with a plastic body which has two holes as input and output streams.

Water flow sensor for arduino tutorial

Water flow sensor for arduino tutorial

Specifications Water Flow Meter Sensor

Mini. Wokring VoltageDC 4.5V
Max. Working Current15mA(DC 5V)
Working Voltage5V~24V
Flow Rate Range1~30L/min
Load Capacity≤10mA(DC 5V)
Operating Temperature≤80℃
Liquid Temperature≤120℃
Operating Humidity35%~90%RH
Water Pressure≤2.0MPa
Storage Temperature-25℃~+80℃
Storage Humidity25%~95%RH

 

Water flow datasheet

Water flow datasheet

Water flow arduino datasheet

Water flow arduino datasheet

Components of the water flow meter sensor

No.NameQuantityMaterialNote
1Valve body1PA66+33%glass fiber
2Stainless steel bead1Stainless steel SUS304
3Axis1Stainless steel SUS304
4Impeller1POM
5Ring magnet1Ferrite
6Middle ring1PA66+33%glass fiber
7O-seal ring1Rubber
8Electronic seal ring1Rubber
9Cover1PA66+33%glass fiber
10Screw4Stainless steel SUS3043.0*11
11Cable11007 24AWG

 

You can read data from these sensors water flow meter with arduino. For example, the schematic diagram will assist you in arranging a water flow meter in the arduino.

water-flow-sensor-for-arduino

water-flow-sensor-for-arduino

ATMega16 Schematic Circuit Tutorial

avr-atmega16-minimum-system-schematic-circuit

avr-atmega16-minimum-system-schematic-circuit

Many projects can be built from a microcontroller such as control and monitoring project. AVR ATmega16 can work when there are several supporting components such as resistors and capacitors in the circuit. ‘Reset’ feature on ATmega16 microcontroller must pull up using resistors (Also applies to the other AVR ATMega microcontroller). The series of pull up on the reset button typically use 4.7 Kohm resistor and stabilized with 100nF capacitor.

For AVR ATmega16 You can use up to 16 MHz crystal. But if you use the AVR ATMega16L you can only use 0-8MHz. Crystal components is enclosed by two capacitors whose capacity is set in microcontroller datasheet. However, it is usually used 22pF.

The downloader pin must be arranged  like the downloader standart pin (MOSI, MISO, SCK, RESET, GROUND).

Once you complete all the components of the minimum system, the microcontroller you’ve been able to work properly.

Arduino Nano Datasheet and Tutorial

arduino-nano-configuration

arduino-nano-configuration

Arduino Nano is a function module which is very small but has a lot of advantages. The shape is very small so it is suitable to make a project that looks small. Arduino Nano is very special because of this support with breadboards. You can plug arduino and other electronic components in one breadborad. In the Arduino Nano 2.x version, still used avr ATmega168 microcontroller while the Arduino Nano 3.x version already used avr ATmega328 microcontroller.

arduino nano tutorial

arduino nano tutorial

Arduino Nano has features and functions similar to arduino Duemilanove. But Arduino Nano in different packaging. Arduino nano does not have a DC jack so that its power supplied through mini-B USB port or directly connect to the VCC pin and GND. Arduino Nano can be supplied with a voltage of 6-20V power source via USB mini-B port. Or you can provide a voltage of 5V on pin 30 (this voltage will not be adjusted by the regulator, so make sure you provide 5V voltage)

arduino nano pin configuration

arduino nano pin configuration

Arduino Nano Specifications:

MicrocontrollerAtmel ATmega168 or ATmega328
Operating Voltage (logic level)5 V
Input Voltage (recommended)7-12 V
Input Voltage (limits)6-20 V
Digital I/O Pins14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
Analog Input Pins8
DC Current per I/O Pin40 mA
Flash Memory16 KB (ATmega168) or 32 KB (ATmega328) of which 2 KB used by bootloader
SRAM1 KB (ATmega168) or 2 KB (ATmega328)
EEPROM512 bytes (ATmega168) or 1 KB (ATmega328)
Clock Speed16 MHz
Dimensions0.73″ x 1.70″
Length45 mm
Width18 mm
Weigth5 g

 

 

arduino nano datasheet

arduino nano datasheet

In some cases, Arduino Nano has features that are more complete than arduino uno. Arduino Nano has 8 channel ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) while the Arduino Uno only has 6 channels. Through the RX and TX pins you can communicate serially with other devices. According datasheet ATmega328 AVR microcontroller, Arduino Nano has 2 pin interrupt, namely int0 and int1.

arduino nano pin input output configuration

arduino nano pin input output configuration

Overall, Arduino nano has 30 pins. The 8 pin of them (19-26 pin) are Analog pins (ADC). While the other 14 pins are Digital pins (Please see the picture above to see the position of digital and analog pins).

arduino nano connected to computer

arduino nano connected to computer

You have to write the source code for arduino nano on Arduino IDE sofftware. Then, you can download the program on an Arduino Nano using a USB-B cable.