avr minimal circuit
The minimum system circuit of a microcontroller is a series of minimal so the microcontroller can work.
ATmegga AVR chip is equipped with an internal oscillator and thus no need external crystal for CPU clock source in order to save costs.
AVR microcontroller minimum system is very simple, just connect the VCC and AVCC to the DC +5V power supply voltage. Then GND and AGND with the ground. No need an additional crystal and reset pin is not connected to anything. With this circuit, AVR microcontroller has been able to work normally, but you can not reset the microcontroller manually. If you want to activate the reset pin with a button to trigger it, then connect the reset pin on your microcontroller with pull circuit made up of a 10k resistor and capacitor 10uF.
This circuit works for all AVR microcontroller family as ATMega8535, ATMega8, ATmega32, ATmega16 and others.
If you want to use larger crystals from 8MHz to your microcontroller circuit, then you can use an external crystal. You can see a more complete circuit on this page or this one.
ATMega8 Schematic Circuit (Minimum system) is a support circuit for the microcontroller.
Without this support circuit, the microcontroller will not be able to work.
Minimum system for microcontrollers consist of several components. The components are : crystal, capacitors, and the reset circuit (consisting of resistors and capacitors).
And the crystal must be combined by two capacitors. The capacity of this capacitor should be in accordance with the AVR ATMega8 datasheet.
RESET pin on AVR ATMega8 must be pull up with a 4K7 ohm resistor and stabilized with ‘100nF capacitors’.
You have to make the pin as a downloader port. pin of the downloader port must meet a standard sequence. The pin sequence is: MOSI, MISO, SCK, RESET, GROUND.
This AVR ATMega8 schematic is made with the EAGLE software.
AVR ATMega8535 is a very popular microcontroller.
In the recent years, ATMega8535 has been displaced by the other microcontroller with a more complete feature like ATMega32, ATMega16 or ATMega128. Even, when Arduino offers ease (in the used and programming), the conventional Microcontroller becoming obsolete.
However, some users are still loyal to use the conventional microcontroller. And if you want to learn about the basics of the microcontroller, then you have to learn from the conventional microcontroller. You have to create an electronic circuit by yourself. And you have to find out all about the components used. After you finish creating the electronic circuits, then you will understand how the microcontroller’s minimum system so that it able works. And you will understand how a microcontroller work, before you start programming it.
Like other microcontroller, we need some electronic components so that it able to work.
Crystal,some resistor and capacitor for the clock and the reset button. And don’t forget to provide the supply (VCC and GND) on the microcontroller board. You can make the ATMega8535 schematic diagram with the EAGLE software like the exsample above.
Water flow sensor for arduino tutorial
Water flow meter sensor is a sensor that can detect the speed of water flow.
One of a flow sensor that is often used is the production of seeedstudio. Water flow meter sensor works based on half-effect sensors that are inside.
Half-effect sensors work by rotation of the turbine that is rotated by the flow of water. Water flow meter sensor is wrapped with a plastic body which has two holes as input and output streams.
Water flow sensor for arduino tutorial
Specifications Water Flow Meter Sensor
|Mini. Wokring Voltage||DC 4.5V|
|Max. Working Current||15mA(DC 5V)|
|Flow Rate Range||1～30L/min|
|Load Capacity||≤10mA(DC 5V)|
Water flow datasheet
Water flow arduino datasheet
Components of the water flow meter sensor
|1||Valve body||1||PA66+33%glass fiber|
|2||Stainless steel bead||1||Stainless steel SUS304|
|3||Axis||1||Stainless steel SUS304|
|6||Middle ring||1||PA66+33%glass fiber|
|8||Electronic seal ring||1||Rubber|
|10||Screw||4||Stainless steel SUS304||3.0*11|
You can read data from these sensors water flow meter with arduino. For example, the schematic diagram will assist you in arranging a water flow meter in the arduino.
Many projects can be built from a microcontroller such as control and monitoring project.
AVR ATmega16 can work when there are several supporting components such as resistors and capacitors in the circuit. ‘Reset’ feature on ATmega16 microcontroller must pull up using resistors (Also applies to the other AVR ATMega microcontroller). The series of pull up on the reset button typically use 4.7 Kohm resistor and stabilized with 100nF capacitor.
For AVR ATmega16 You can use up to 16 MHz crystal. But if you use the AVR ATMega16L you can only use 0-8MHz. Crystal components is enclosed by two capacitors whose capacity is set in microcontroller datasheet. However, it is usually used 22pF.
The downloader pin must be arranged like the downloader standart pin (MOSI, MISO, SCK, RESET, GROUND).
Once you complete all the components of the minimum system, the microcontroller you’ve been able to work properly.
Arduino Nano is a function module which is very small but has a lot of advantages. The shape is very small so it is suitable to make a project that looks small. Arduino Nano is very special because of this support with breadboards. You can plug arduino and other electronic components in one breadborad. In the Arduino Nano 2.x version, still used avr ATmega168 microcontroller while the Arduino Nano 3.x version already used avr ATmega328 microcontroller.
arduino nano tutorial
Arduino Nano has features and functions similar to arduino Duemilanove. But Arduino Nano in different packaging. Arduino nano does not have a DC jack so that its power supplied through mini-B USB port or directly connect to the VCC pin and GND. Arduino Nano can be supplied with a voltage of 6-20V power source via USB mini-B port. Or you can provide a voltage of 5V on pin 30 (this voltage will not be adjusted by the regulator, so make sure you provide 5V voltage)
arduino nano pin configuration
Arduino Nano Specifications:
|Microcontroller||Atmel ATmega168 or ATmega328|
|Operating Voltage (logic level)||5 V|
|Input Voltage (recommended)||7-12 V|
|Input Voltage (limits)||6-20 V|
|Digital I/O Pins||14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)|
|Analog Input Pins||8|
|DC Current per I/O Pin||40 mA|
|Flash Memory||16 KB (ATmega168) or 32 KB (ATmega328) of which 2 KB used by bootloader|
|SRAM||1 KB (ATmega168) or 2 KB (ATmega328)|
|EEPROM||512 bytes (ATmega168) or 1 KB (ATmega328)|
|Clock Speed||16 MHz|
|Dimensions||0.73″ x 1.70″|
arduino nano datasheet
In some cases, Arduino Nano has features that are more complete than arduino uno. Arduino Nano has 8 channel ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) while the Arduino Uno only has 6 channels. Through the RX and TX pins you can communicate serially with other devices. According datasheet ATmega328 AVR microcontroller, Arduino Nano has 2 pin interrupt, namely int0 and int1.
arduino nano pin input output configuration
Overall, Arduino nano has 30 pins. The 8 pin of them (19-26 pin) are Analog pins (ADC). While the other 14 pins are Digital pins (Please see the picture above to see the position of digital and analog pins).
arduino nano connected to computer
You have to write the source code for arduino nano on Arduino IDE sofftware. Then, you can download the program on an Arduino Nano using a USB-B cable.